Child Protection Policy
Exchange2 is committed to practice which protects children from harm. Staff and volunteers in this organisation accept and recognise our responsibilities to develop awareness of the issues which cause children harm.
This policy is based on the following principles:
The welfare of the child is paramount;
All children, whatever their age, culture, disability, gender, language, racial origin religious beliefs and/or sexual identity have the right to protection from abuse;
All suspicions and allegations of abuse will be taken seriously and responded to swiftly and appropriately;
All staff (paid/unpaid) have a responsibility to report concerns to the Designated Person with responsibility for child protection.
Staff/volunteers are not trained to deal with situations of abuse or to decide if abuse has occurred.
We will aim to safeguard children by:
Adopting child protection guidelines through procedures and a code of conduct for staff and volunteers.
Sharing information about child protection and good practice with children, parents and carers, staff and volunteers.
Sharing information about concerns with agencies who need to know, and involving parents and children appropriately.
Carefully following the procedures for recruitment and selection of staff and volunteers.
Providing effective management for staff and volunteers through support, supervision and training.
We are committed to reviewing our policy and good practice regularly.
This policy sets out agreed guidelines relating to the following areas:
Responding to allegations of abuse, including those made against staff and volunteers
Recruitment and vetting of staff and volunteers
Supervision of organisational activities
1. Definitions of abuse
These definitions are based on those from Working Together to Safeguard Children (Department of Health, Home office, Department for Education and Employment, 1999)
Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing harm to a child.
Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill health to a child whom they are looking after. This situation is commonly described as factitious illness, fabricated or induced illness in children or Munchausen Syndrome by proxy after the person who first identified this situation.
A person might do this because they enjoy or need the attention they get through having a sick child.
Physical abuse, as well as being the result of a deliberate act, can also be caused through omission or the failure to act to protect.
Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the childs emotional development. It may involve making a child feel or believe they are worthless or unloved, inadequate or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of the other person.
It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. It may also involve causing children to feel frequently frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of a child.
Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill treatment of a child, though it may occur alone.
Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of, or consents to, what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative acts such as rape, buggery or oral sex, or non-penetrative acts such as fondling.
Sexual abuse may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, pornographic material or watching sexual activities, or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
Boys and girls can be sexually abused by males and or females, by adults and by other young people. This includes people from all different walks of life.
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a childs basic physical and or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the childs health or development. It may involve a parent or a carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, leaving a young child home alone, or the failure to ensure that a child gets appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a childs basic emotional needs.
It is accepted that in all forms of abuse there are elements of emotional abuse, and that some children are subjected to more than one form of abuse at any time. These four definitions do not minimise other forms of maltreatment.
Recent guidance notes other sources of stress for children and families, such as social exclusion, domestic violence, the mental illness of a parent or carer, or drug and alcohol misuse. These may have a negative impact on a childs health and development and may be noticed by an organisation caring for a child. If it is felt that a childs well-being is adversely affected by any of these areas, the same procedures should be followed.
2. Recognising and Responding to Abuse
The following signs may or may not be indicators that abuse has taken place, but the possibility should be considered.
Physical signs of abuse
Any injuries not consistent with the explanation given for them
Injuries which occur to the body in places which are not normally exposed to falls or games
Unexplained bruising, marks or injuries on any part of the body
Bruises which reflect hand marks or fingertips (from slapping or pinching)
Injuries which have not received medical attention
Neglect under-nourishment, failure to grow, constant hunger, stealing or gorging food, untreated illnesses, inadequate care
Repeated urinary infections or unexplained stomach pains
Changes in behaviour which can also indicate physical abuse:
Fear of parents being approached for an explanation
Aggressive behaviour or severe temper outbursts
Flinching when approached or touched
Reluctance to get changed, for example, wearing long sleeves in hot weather
Running away from home
Emotional signs of abuse
The physical signs of emotional abuse may include;
A failure to thrive or grow particularly if a child puts on weight in other circumstances e.g. in hospital or away from their parents care
Sudden speech disorders
Development delay, either in terms of physical or emotional progress
Changes in behaviour which can also indicate emotional abuse include:
Obsessions or phobias
Sudden under-achievement or lack of concentration
Inappropriate relationships with peers and/or adults
Being unable to play
Attention seeking behaviour
Fear of making mistakes
Fear of parent being approached regarding their behaviour
The physical signs of sexual abuse may include:
Pain or itching in the genital/anal area
Bruising or bleeding near genital/anal areas
Sexually transmitted disease
Vaginal discharge or infection
Discomfort when walking or sitting down
Changes in behaviour which can also indicate sexual abuse include:
Sudden or unexplained changes in behaviour e.g. becoming withdrawn or aggressive
Fear of being left with a specific person or group of people
Running away from home
Sexual knowledge which is beyond their age or developmental level
Sexual drawings or language
Eating problems such as over-eating or anorexia
Self-harm or mutilation, sometimes leading to suicide attempts
Saying they have secrets they can not tell anyone about
Substance or drug abuse
Suddenly having unexplained sources of money
Not allowed to have friends (particularly in adolescence)
Acting in a sexually explicit way with adults
The physical signs of neglect may include:
Constant hunger, sometimes stealing food from other children
Constantly dirty or smelly
Loss of weight or being constantly underweight
Inappropriate dress for the conditions
Changes in behaviour which can also indicate neglect include:
Complaining of being tired all the time
Not requesting medical assistance and/or failing to attend appointments
Having few friends
Mentioning being left alone or unsupervised
3. What to do if you suspect that abuse may have occurred
1. You must report the concerns immediately to the the Trustees of Exchange 2, specifically the Designated Person, the Child Protection Office (CPO; Mike Whitehouse 2015-16).
The role of the designated person is to:
Obtain information from staff, volunteers, children or parents and carers who have child protection concerns and to record this information.
Assess the information quickly and carefully and ask for further information as appropriate.
They should also consult with a statutory child protection agency such as the local social services department or the NSPCC to clarify any doubts or worries.
The designated person should make a referral to a statutory child protection agency or the police without delay.
The designated person has been nominated by Exchange 2 to refer allegations or suspicions of neglect or abuse to the statutory authorities. In the absence of the CPO the matter should be brought to the attention of the Chairman (Kevin Garnham 2015-16).
2. Suspicions will not be discussed with anyone other than those nominated above.
3. It is the right of any individual to make direct referrals to the child protection agencies. If for any reason you believe that the nominated persons have not responded appropriately to your concerns, then it is up to you to contact the child protection agencies directly.
Allegations of physical injury or neglect
If a child has a symptom of physical injury or neglect the designated person will:
1. Contact Social Services for advice in cases of deliberate injury or concerns about the safety of the child. The parents should not be informed by the organisation in these circumstances.
2. Where emergency medical attention is necessary it will be sought immediately. The designated person will inform the doctor of any suspicions of abuse.
3. In other circumstances speak with the parent/carer/guardian and suggest that medical help/attention is sought for the child. The doctor will then initiate further action if necessary.
4. If appropriate the parent/carer will be encouraged to seek help from Social Services. If the parent/care/guardian fails to act the designated person should in case of real concern contact social services for advice.
5. Where the designated person is unsure whether to refer a case to Social Services then advice from the Norfolk Child Protection Safeguarding Board will be sought.
Allegations of sexual abuse
In the event of allegations or suspicions of sexual abuse the designated person will:
1. Contact the Social Service duty social worker for children and families directly. The designated person will not speak to the parent (or anyone else)
2. If the designated person is unsure whether or not to follow the above guidance then advice from the Norfolk Child Protection Safeguarding Board will be sought.
3. Under no circumstances is the designated person attempt to carry out any investigation into the allegation or suspicions of sexual abuse. The role of the designated person is to collect and clarify the precise details of the allegation or suspicion and to provide this information to Social Services whose task it is to investigate the matter under section 47 of the Children Act.
4. Whilst allegations or suspicions of sexual abuse should normally be reported to the designated person, their absence should not delay referral to Social Services.
4. Responding to a child making an allegation of abuse
Stay calm, listen carefully to what is being said
Find an appropriate early opportunity to explain that it is likely that the information will need to be share with others - do not promise to keep secrets
Allow the child to continue at his/her own pace
Ask questions for clarification only, and at all time avoid asking questions that suggest a particular answer
Reassure the child that they have done the right thing in telling you
Tell them what you will do next and with whom the information will be shared
Record in writing what was said using the childs own words as soon as possible, note the date, time, any names mentioned, to whom the information was given, and ensure that the record is signed and dated.
Helpful statements to make
I believe you (or showing acceptance of what the child says)
Thank you for telling me
Its not your fault
I will help you
Do not say
Why didnt you tell anyone before?
I cant believe it!
Are you sure that this is true?
Why? Who? When? Where?
Never make false promises
5. What to do after a child has talked to you about abuse
1. Make notes as soon as possible (ideally within 1 hour of being told) you should write down exactly what the child has said and what you said in reply and what was happening immediately before being told (i.e. the activity being delivered). You should record the dates, times, and when you made the record. All hand written notes should be kept securely.
You should use the form Reporting allegations or suspicions of abuse This form is attached at the back of this policy. (Appendix 1)
2. You should report your discussion with the designated person as soon as possible. If this person is implicated you need to report to the Exchange2 Chairman. If both are implicated you should report to Social Services.
3. You should under no circumstances discuss your suspicions or allegations with anyone other than those nominated above.
4. After a child has disclosed abuse the designated persons should carefully consider whether or not it is safe for a child to return home to potentially abusive situation. On these rare occasions it may be necessary to take immediate action to contact Social Services to discuss putting safety measures into effect.
6. Recruitment and appointment of workers and volunteers
In recruiting and appointing workers Exchange2 will be responsible for the following:
Identifying the tasks and responsibilities involved and the type of person most suitable for the job.
Drawing up the Selection criteria and putting together a list of essential and desirable qualifications, skills and experience.
All applicants should apply in writing and their application will cover their personal details, previous and current work/volunteering experience.
We will always send a copy of our child protection policy with the application pack.
We will make sure that we measure the application against the selection criteria
All applicants need to sign a declaration stating that there is no reason why they should be considered unsuitable to work with children. The Rehabilitation of Offenders Act (1974) requires that people applying for positions which give them substantial, unsupervised access on a sustained or regular basis to children under the age of 18 must declare all previous convictions which are then subject to police checks. They can then only be offered a volunteer post/job subject to a successful police check. This includes potential employees, volunteers and self-employed people such as sports coaches. They are also required to declare any pending case against them. It is important that the applicant in this particular category understands that all information will be dealt with confidentially and will not be used against them unfairly.
We will ask for photographic evidence to confirm the identity of the applicant e.g. their passport
We will request to see documentation of any qualifications detailed by the applicant.
We will always interview our candidates, and ask and a police check.
We will have at least two people from our organisation on the interview panel.
We will, in some circumstances request references from people who are not family members or friends and who have knowledge of the applicants experience of working with children. We will ask the referee to also comment on their suitability for working with children. We will also try and follow up written references with a telephone call.
The same principles apply to young people who have been involved with the organisation and have become volunteers.
We will ensure that our successful applicant obtains an Enhanced Criminal Record Certificate (ECRC) from the Criminal Records Bureau. They will need to show the ECRC before we will confirm them in post.
7. Allegations against a member of staff
We will assure all staff/volunteers, that Exchange2 will fully support and protect anyone, who in good faith reports his or her concern that a colleague is, or may be, abusing a child. Where there is a complaint against a member of staff there may be three types of investigation; we will protect their anonymity of the informant via our Whistle Blowing Policy.
A criminal investigation,
A child protection investigation,
A disciplinary or misconduct investigation.
The results of the police and child protection investigation may well influence the disciplinary investigation, but not necessarily.
Action if there are concerns
1. Concerns about poor practice:
· If, following consideration, the allegation is clearly about poor practice; this will be dealt with as a misconduct issue.
· If the allegation is about poor practice by the Designated Person or if the matter has been handled inadequately and concerns remain, it should be reported to the Secretary (Anne Lowe 2015-16) who will decide how to deal with the allegation and whether or not the organisation should initiate any proceedings.
2. Concerns about suspected abuse
Any suspicion that a child has been abused by either a member of staff or a volunteer should be reported to the Designated Person, who will take such steps as considered necessary to ensure the safety of the child in question and any other child who may be at risk.
The Designated Person will refer the allegation to the social services department who may involve the police, or go directly to the police if out-of-hours.
The parents or carers of the child will be contacted as soon as possible following advice from the social services department.
If the Designated Person is the subject of the suspicion/allegation, the report must be made to the appropriate Manager who will refer the allegation to Social Services.
3. Internal Enquiries and Suspension
The Designated Person will make an immediate decision about whether any individual accused of abuse should be temporarily suspended pending further police and social services inquiries.
Irrespective of the findings of the social services or police inquiries the organisation will assess all individual cases to decide whether a member of staff or volunteer can be reinstated and how this can be sensitively handled. This may be a difficult decision; particularly where there is insufficient evidence to uphold any action by the police. In such cases, the organisation must reach a decision based upon the available information which could suggest that, on a balance of probability, it is more likely than not that the allegation is true. The welfare of the child should remain of paramount importance throughout
8. Supervisory arrangements for the management of Exchange2 activities and services.
We will aim to protect young people from abuse and our team members from false allegations by adopting the following guidelines:
We will keep a register of all young people attending our off-site activities.
We will keep a register of all team members (both paid staff members and volunteers)
We will keep a record of all sessions including monitoring and evaluation records.
Our team members will record any unusual events on the accident/incident form.
Written consent from a parent or guardian will be obtained for every young person attending our off-site activities.
Where possible our team members should not be alone with a young person, although we recognise that there may be times when this may be necessary or helpful
All team members should treat all children with dignity and respect in both attitude language and actions.
9. Support and Training
Exchange2 is committed to the provision of child protection training for all our team members.
This policy was adopted on 20th January 2015
This policy will be reviewed January 2016